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Garry Winogrand

(1928 - 1984)

 

Garry Winogrand s-a nascut la Nerw York, in 1928.

A inceput sa fotografieze cand era militar in USAF.

garry_winogrand.jpg

A studiat pictura la City College in New York. In 1948, cand era student la Columbia University, descopera laboratorul foto din campusul universitatii iar, dupa numai doua saptamani abandoneaza studiile de pictura si se dedica integral fotografiei. Incepe studiile de fotografie tot la Columbia University.

In 1951 sudiaza fotojurnalismul cu Alexey Brodovich la The New School for Social Research (New York). In perioada 1949 - 1951 se angajeaza ca fotograf la New School of Social Research iar apoi, ca fotograf independent si publica fotografii in diverse ziare si reviste, printre care Life si Sports Illustrated.

In 1955 intreprinde prima calatorie prin SUA (Texax, Colorado si California).

Primii ani din '60 sunt plini de dificultati si reasezari. Artistul este profund marcat de Criza Nucleara din Cuba si de asasinarea lui Kenedy. Sotia lui se plange ca "a fi maritata cu Garry e ca si cand ai fi maritata cu un obiectiv" si divorteaza. Winogrand citeste lucrarea lui Walker Evans, American Photographs despre care marturiseste mai tariziu ca l-a influentat profound.

In 1963 participa la prima sa expozitie, alaturi de Minor White, George Krause, Jerome Liebling si Ken Heyman, la MoMA (Museum of Modern Art).

In 1966 expune la George Eastman House in Rochester, impreuna cu Lee Friedlander, Duane Michals, Bruce Davidson si Danny Lyon intr-o expozitie intitulata "Toward a Social Landscape".

In 1967 calatoreste si fotografiaza in Anglia, Scotia si Franta.

In 1969 publica primul album de fotografii "The Animals" cu lucrari realizate in gradinile zoologice din Bronx si din acvariul Coney Island, in care prezinta conexiunile dintre oameni si animale.

szarkowski_winogrand_friedlander.jpg

Garry Winogrand si John Szarkowsky fotografiati de Lee Friedlander (1975)

In 1975 pbulica albumul "Women Are Beautiful" in care prezinta fotografii ale unor femei necunoscute, realizate pe strada, fara nici o regie. Selectia celor 85 fotografi a fost realizata de John Szarkowski custode la sectia foto a Museum of Modern Art. In prefata lucrarii, autorul marturiseste: "Whenever I've seen an attractive woman, I've done my best to photograph her". Succesul comercial al albumului a fost dezamagitor.

women_are_beautiful.jpg

Coperta albumului "Women are beautiful"

In 1976 se muta la Los Angeles. In 1977 fotografiaza in Grecia.

A primit trei burse Guggenheim Fellowship Awards (1964, 1969, and 1979) si National Endowment of the Arts Award in 1979.

In 1983 calatoreste in Danemarca si Suedia.

Winogrand a predat cursuri de fotografie la University of Texas (Austin) si la Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago).

Se stinge din viata in 1984, lasand in urma peste 300.000 cadre de film nevelopat sau nemarit.

In 1988, Szarkowski, impreuna cu prietenii lui Winogrand Tod Papageorge, Tom Roma si Thomas Consilvio, selecteaza un numar de fotografii si le expun in expozitia postuma "Unfinishid Work", despre care autorii spun ca le-au ales pentru ca erau "in consonanta, totusi diferite de lucrarile initiale ale artistului si reprezinta [...] evolutia intuitiei si a ambitiilor artistului in ultima parte a vietii sale." Aceasta expozitie a starnit comentarii pro si contra, mai ales referitoare la autoritarismul cu care agentiile impuneau selectia imaginilor artistilor.

 

* * *

 

Winogrand respecta traditia fotografiei de strada (aparat cu vizor separat, cu declansare silentioasa, la lumina existenta, in alb-negru). Fotografia cu un aparat Leica cu un obiectiv superangular, cu diafragma reglata pentru o profunzime mare de camp si pus deja la punct pentru a creste viteza de fotografie. Fotografia pe strazile New York-ului, aproape zilnic, zece sau mai multe role de film.

winograd_leica.jpg

Aparatul Leica folosit de Winogrand

Utilizarea superangularului si alinierea unei margini laterale cu o linie verticala, lasa impresia de cadru inclinat, dar foarte dinamic. Fotografia, inclinind aparatul spre stanga si apoi spre dreapta, urmind ca ulterior sa aleaga acel cadru care exprima cea mai puternica legatura intre prim-plan si fundal.

Isi developa filmele cu multa intarziere, uneori chiar si dupa un an de la momentul expunerii, pentru ca amintirile neimportante sa se stearga si ca doar cele puternice sa-i influenteze alegerea negativului pentru marit.

winogrand_proof.jpg

O plansa-contact dupa un film realizat de Winogrand

Deseori, in cadrele sale, se afla doua sau mai multe personaje aflate in competitie, pe care artistul ni le arata intr-o maniera uneori ironica dar si plina de compasiune. Isi fotografia personajele direct, din fata, dupa ce stabilise un minim contact vizual cu persoanele necunoscute care treceau pe langa el si care, paradoxal, nu pareau deranjate de a fi fotografiate. Winogrand fotografia persoane anonime, surprinse in activitatile cotidiene, pe strata, in magazine, in parcuri, muzee, la demonstratii politice sau la spectacole sportive, etc., o adevrata fresca a new-yorkezilor in mediul lor cotidian de viata.

Szarkowski arata despre artist: "Winogrand ne-a lasat un volum enorm de lucrari dense, tulburatoare, neterminate dar puternic provocatoare si care ne ofera idei despre ce ar putea deveni fotografia. [...] Ambitia lui a fost nu de a face fotografii bune ci de aa cunoaste viata prin fotografie".

winogrand_man_in_crowd.jpg

Coperta albumului "Men in crowd"

In lucrarile sale razbat influente ale lui Walker Evans, Robert Frank si Henri cartier-Bresson.

winogrand_arrivals.jpg

Coperta albumului "Arrivals & Departures: The Airport Pictures Of Garry Winogrand"

Winogrand a fotografiat si color, dar aceste lucrari nu s-au bucurat de acelasi succes ca cele alb-negru.

 

 

Albume publicate:
The Animals, 1969
Women Are Beautiful, 1975
Public Relations, 1977
Stock Photographs: The Fort Worth Fat Stock Show and Rodeo, 1980
Winogrand: Figments from the Real World, 1988
The Archive 26: Garry Winogrand: Early Work, 1990
The Man in the Crowd: The Uneasy Streets of Garry Winogrand, 1999
Arrivals & Departures: The Airport Pictures Of Garry Winogrand, 2003

 

Expozitii individuale:
1960 Photographs by GarryWinogrand - Image Gallery, New York
1969 The Animals - Museum of Modern Art, New York
1971 Garry Winogrand's Photographs - Light Gallery, New York
GarryWinogrand - Focus Gallery, San Francisco, California
GarryWinogrand - Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois
1972 Garry Winogrand - Toronto Gallery of Photography, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Garry Winogrand - Media Center, Rice University, Houston, Texas
1975 Garry Winogrand: Women Are Beautiful - Light Gallery, New York
1977 Public Relations: Photographs by GarryWinogrand - Museum ofModern Art, New York, itinerata la: Reed College, Portland, Oregon; Laguna Gloria Art Museum, Austin, Texas; Florida International University, Miami, Florida
1978 Garry Winogrand - Kline Common Gallery, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York
1979 Garry Winogrand: Greece - Light Gallery, New York
Garry Winogrand: Texas and Greece - Orange Coast College Gallery, Costa Mesa, California
1980 Garry Winogrand - Galerie de Photographie, Bibliotheque nationale de Paris
GarryWinogrand Retrospective - Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco, California
Garry Winogrand - University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
1981 Garry Winogrand - The Burton Gallery of Photographic Art, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
1983 GarryWinogrand: Big Shots: Photographs of Celebrities
1984 Garry Winogrand: Recent Work - The Houston Center for Photography, Houston, Texas
GarryWinogrand: Photographs - Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, Massachusetts
1986 Women Are Beautiful: A Portfolio of Photographs by Garry Winogrand - University Art Museum, University of California, Santa Barbara, California
1988 GarryWinogrand - Museum of Modern Art, New York, itinerata la: Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Carnegie Mellon University Art Gallery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, California; Archer M. Huntington Gallery, University of Texas, Austin; Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, Tucson; Hayward Gallery, Londra; Fundacio Antoni Tapies, Barcelona; Centre national de la photographie, Paris; Fotografische Sammlung im Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germania.
1994 GarryWinogrand: Into the Night (Unpublished Vintage Prints, NYC, 1954) - Bonni Benrubi Gallery, New York.
1995 Women Are Beautiful: Photographs by Garry Winogrand - Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois.
1999 The Man in the Crowd: The Uneasy Streets of Garry Winogrand - Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco, California, and traveled toMuseum of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Photographers' Gallery, Londra
2001 Winogrand's Street Theater: Selections from the Garry Winogrand Archive at the Center for Creative Photography - 32-es Rencontres Internationales de la Photographie, Arles, Franta.

 

Expozitii de grup:
1955 The Family of Man - Museum of Modern Art, New York
1963 Five Unrelated Photographers - Museum of Modern Art, New York
1966 Toward a Social Landscape; George Eastman House, Rochester, New York
1967 New Documents - Museum of Modern Art, New York, itinerata la: Goucher College, Towson, Maryland - McMaster University, Connecticut; Cornell University, Ithaca, New York; Krannert Art Museum, Champaign, Illinois; Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut; Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire; University of Missouri
1968 Five Photographers: Eikoh Hosoe, Ralph Eugene Meatyard, Josef Sudek, Garry Winogrand, and John Wood - Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
1975 14 American Photographers - The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland, itinerata la: Newport Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach, California; La Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, La Jolla, California; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; The Fort Worth Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas
1976 The Great American Rodeo - The Fort Worth Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas
1978 Mirrors and Windows: American Photography since 1960 - The Museum of Modern Art, New York, itinerata la: Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; J. B. Speed ArtMuseum, Louisville, Kentucky; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California; Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois; VirginiaMuseum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia; Milwaukee Art Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
1979 Fleeting Gestures: Dance Photographs - International Museum of Photography and Film, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York
1980 Bruce Davidson and Garry Winogrand - Moderna Museet/Fotografiska Museet, Stockholm, Suedia.
1981 Central Park Photographs: Lee Friedlander, Tod Papageorge, and Garry Winogrand - The Dairy in Central Park, New York.
Garry Winogrand and Charles Swedlund - Film in the Cities Gallery, St. Paul, Minnesota
1983 Masters of the Street: Henri Cartier-Bresson, Josef Koudelka, Robert Frank, and GarryWinogrand - Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego, California
Available Light - The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, California
1985 American Images: Photography 1945-1980 - Barbican Art Gallery, Londra.
1987American Dreams - Reina Sofia Art Center, Madrid
1988 Women/Men: Photographs from the Seagram Collection - Joseph E. Seagram and Sons, Inc., Executive Offices, New York
No Trumpets, No Swans: An Invitational Exhibition of Photography - PrattManhattan Gallery, New York; The Rubelle & Norman Schafler Gallery, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York
1989 On The Art of Fixing a Shadow: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Photography - National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., itinerata la: Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California
Picturing California: A Century of Photographic Genius - The Oakland Museum, Oakland, California
Decade by Decade: Twentieth-Century American Photography From the Collection of the Center for Creative Photography - Center for Creative Photography, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona
Confronting the Uncomfortable: Questioning Truth and Power - Yale University Art Gallery, NewHaven,Connecticut
Photography Until Now - TheMuseum of Modern Art, New York, New York
1994 American Politicians: Photographs from 1843 to 1993 - The Museum of Modern Art, New York.
1995 Seeing Things - Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco, California itinerata la Palacio de los Condes de Gabia, Granada, Spania.
American Photography 1890-1965 from The Museum of Modern Art, New York - The International Council of The Museum of Modern Art, New York, itinerata la Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kunstbibliothek, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, Hasselblad Center, Goteborg, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, IVAM Centre Julio Gonzalez, Valencia, si Victoria and Albert Museum, Londra
1996 Crossing the Frontier: Photographs of the Developing West, 1849 to the Present - San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California, itinerata la Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut; Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, Arizona; Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography, Tokyo.

 

 

Marian Gadea
iulie, 2009
© Foto-Magazin.ro

 

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Comentarii:

Gelu Lupas - 08 Jul 2009, ora 07:52
Femeia din fotografia #18 este Diane Arbus.

Olah Laszlo-Tibor - 09 Jul 2009, ora 11:51
bun articol, am mai identificat cateva fotografii, care imi placeau dar nu stiam cui apartin. thx

Alex Sigartau - 10 Jul 2009, ora 18:10
era si timpul sa il prezentati si pe Garry. felicitari pentru articol si prezentare!

dan d - 11 Jul 2009, ora 03:03
sinteti sigur ca nr 13 este winogrand? nu prea seamana cu stilul lui... seamana cu Tokihiro Sato http://www.japanexposures.com/2009/01/30/the-multi-dimensional-tokihiro-sato/

stefan dinu - 22 Jul 2009, ora 15:42
13 e sigur Gary. Oricum, el o ardea destul de des prin gradina zoo. Alaturi de fifth avenue, era locul in care fotografia cel mai des. Pe cea cu Diane Arbus nu o stiam. Inca una in care apare cu Mamyia C330. Era o discutie pe undeva cum ca ea ar fi folosit doar rolleiflex. Nerelevant oricum, decat sub aspectul ca asa firava cum era, cara cu ea un aparat destul de greu, considerabil mai greu, dar si mai versatil decat rolleiflexul.

dan d - 07 Aug 2009, ora 02:50
13 de acuma da; cind am intrebat eu insa era alta fotografie la 13. Insa domnul admin se jeneaza sa recunoasca o greseala. Sa-i fie de bine!

Calin-Stefan Ragalie - 07 Aug 2009, ora 06:54
Am inlocuit-o, multumim de semnalare d.lui Dan.

dan d - 07 Aug 2009, ora 14:50
cu placere. De curiozitate, a cui era cealalta fotografie?

Preemaram - 17 Sep 2010, ora 18:51
Great page!

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